The characteristics and types of schizophrenia a severe mental disorder
Neologisms — Made-up words or phrases that only have meaning to you. To be diagnosed with schizophrenia, two diagnostic criteria have to be met over much of the time of a period of at least one month, with a significant impact on social or occupational functioning for at least six months. Without ongoing care, people with schizophrenia can be hospitalized multiple times, lose jobs and fall out of touch with their families. Symptoms associated with schizophrenia occur along a continuum in the population and must reach a certain severity and level of impairment before a diagnosis is made. It can be a long road to diagnosis , however. Alternately, delusions of grandeur may involve the belief that you have unusual powers, such as the ability to fly. Yet for the person with schizophrenia, they have the full force and impact of a normal experience. To decide whether to admit someone, psychiatrists consider whether patients pose a risk to themselves or others; whether they can take care of themselves; and whether they could benefit from hospital treatment. Caring for and supporting a loved one with schizophrenia can be hard.
The cause of schizophrenia is still unclear. The most common early warning signs include: Depression, social withdrawal Hostility or suspiciousness, extreme reaction to criticism Deterioration of personal hygiene Inability to cry or express joy or inappropriate laughter or crying Oversleeping or insomnia; forgetful, unable to concentrate Odd or irrational statements; strange use of words or way of speaking While these warning signs can result from a number of problems—not just schizophrenia—they are cause for concern.
Schizotypal personality disorder has symptoms that are similar but less severe than those of schizophrenia. In practice, agreement between the two systems is high. With the right self-help, treatment, and support, you can learn to manage the disorder and lead a satisfying and fulfilling life.
Yet for the person with schizophrenia, they have the full force and impact of a normal experience. However, a large body of evidence suggests that hedonic responses are intact in schizophrenia,  and that what is reported to be anhedonia is a reflection of dysfunction in other processes related to reward. If you suspect someone you know is experiencing symptoms of schizophrenia, encourage them to see a medical or mental health professional immediately. Stress-inducing factors could include: Prenatal exposure to a viral infection Low oxygen levels during birth from prolonged labor or premature birth Exposure to a virus during infancy Early parental loss or separation Physical or sexual abuse in childhood Abnormal brain structure In addition to abnormal brain chemistry, abnormalities in brain structure may also play a role in schizophrenia development. These usually involve seeing or hearing things that don't exist. What is Schizophrenia? This is a negative symptom type because of the absence of a normal response. Treatment basics The most effective treatment strategy for schizophrenia involves a combination of medication, therapy, lifestyle changes, and social support.
Catatonia Catatonia includes extremes of behavior: Catatonia can include excessive and peculiar motor behaviors, sometimes referred to as catatonic excitement Catatonia can also include decreased motor activity and engagement.
Finding the right drug and dosage is also a trial and error process. Schizoaffective disorder: The person has delusional thinking and other symptoms of schizophrenia.
This kind of patient may seem emotionally unstable or inappropriate. But for most, it comes on slowly, with subtle warning signs and a gradual decline in functioning long before the first severe episode. This affects your interactions with the world. This is a negative symptom type because of the absence of a normal response. Coordinated Specialty Care CSC has been found to be especially effective in improving outcomes for people after they experience their first episode of psychosis. These abnormalities may be linked to the consistent post-mortem finding of reduced neuropil , evidenced by increased pyramidal cell density and reduced dentritic spine density. Some evidence indicates that regular exercise has a positive effect on the physical and mental health of those with schizophrenia. The brain also undergoes major changes during puberty, and these changes could trigger psychotic symptoms in people who are vulnerable due to genetics or brain differences. For more information on psychosocial treatments, see the Psychotherapies webpage on the NIMH website. Advertising Policy Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. If you have a substance abuse problem , seek help.
But the response may also be the opposite of what is expected, such as laughing at a sad event. Antipsychotics fail to significantly improve the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction.
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