Fetal complications of pregnancies with GDM include increased risk of macrosomia, operative delivery, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma and neonatal hypoglycemia and hyperbilirubinemia.
Almost all women have some degree of impaired glucose tolerance as a result of hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy.
While these studies did not find an increased incidence of GDM after maternal immunization, they had multiple confounders .
Healthy pregnancy weight gain for women at normal weight is 25 to 35 lb Figure- — Mechanism of gestational diabetes Over the course of the pregnancy, these hormones lead to progressive impaired glucose tolerance higher blood sugar levels that means for a given glucose load larger amount of insulin is required.
In addition, in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia may predispose to obesity and insulin resistance later in life . This is due to decreasing insulin sensitivity as the pregnancy progresses. Show Answer Correct answer: As noted above, the complications of GDM are related primarily to fetal macrosomia, including an increased risk of cesarean section delivery, operative vaginal delivery, and birth injury to both the mother vaginal, perineal, and rectal trauma and fetus including orthopedic and neurologic injury.
Fifteen national endocrine and obstetrics and gynecology guidelines were reviewed. Encourage participation in physical activity. Vaccinations are predominantly administered in the first and third trimesters, and GDM testing and diagnosis occurs in the second and third trimesters.
She has had six prior uncomplicated vaginal deliveries. She mentions that her father was recently diagnosed with diabetes, and she asks whether she should be tested for diabetes. If the baseline incidence in the study population is not known then determining the change in incidence after vaccination is not feasible.