A study on the issues of inequalities in globalization
A study on the issues of inequalities in globalization
Comparisons of inequality across individuals in the global population, and across a broader range of measures, regardless of national boundaries, are much rarer, but are increasingly possible and necessary Milanovic, Understanding the nature of, and linkages between, globalization and inequality is crucial because disparities abound in access to needs such as shelter, land, food and clean water, sustainable livelihoods, technology, and information. Where and how does market liberalization exacerbate or reduce spatial inequalities? One of the driving forces of foreign direct investment is that resources tend to flow where the unit cost of production is lowest. Yet to date, the inequality impacts of these seismic shifts in global institutional and societal processes have not been systematically compared as they play out between and within countries around the globe Murray, ; Dicken, Final reasoned comment In conclusion, it is not inevitable that globalisation increases inequality of income and wealth. Income and wealth inequality can be measured in various ways including the Gini coefficient and the Palma Ratio. Although sociology takes inequality to be a central problem, Lobao et al. Although trade based on comparative advantage has the potential to stimulate economic growth and lift per capita incomes, it can also lead to a rise in relative poverty. Research in this vein will require the construction of integrated datasets from existing national and international sources at a range of spatial scales, including production and trade data, household income surveys, national census data, and United Nations and World Bank data see Ravallion, ; Redding and Venables, This within-country representation of variables associated with poverty provides a model for the type of comparative spatial analyses that are needed across countries. The onus is on government to implement and fund the right supply-side policies designed to improve the human capital of people affected including lifting investment in human capital and entrepreneurship. This can lead to higher rates of structural unemployment and a decline in real living standards. Evaluation In evaluation, there are steps that governments can take to increase their tax take.
We live in an unequal world in which descriptors of global inequality—especially inequalities in income—abound. They are therefore at greater risk of unemployment and persistent relative poverty; many have been pushed into poorly paid jobs in services linked to the Gig Economy.
Similar methodologies and tools can be employed to analyze the changing geography of inequality in the face of the twin impacts of market liberalization and climate change Liverman and Vilas, Research in this vein will require the construction of integrated datasets from existing national and international sources at a range of spatial scales, including production and trade data, household income surveys, national census data, and United Nations and World Bank data see Ravallion, ; Redding and Venables, In the next 10 years, researchers will have access to decennial census data and household income surveys from many countries that will allow them to represent and understand the spatial and scalar dimensions of inequality—both between and within countries during a period that will likely be characterized by intensifying globalization and economic instability.
Does globalization increase poverty and inequality?
Research in this vein, which has been undertaken by geographically oriented researchers in demography, geography, economics, and political science, has shown that inequality emerges from multiple processes operating simultaneously at a range of spatial scales, including unequal global distributions of returns to production and work at sites along international production and consumption chains; regional trade agreements that limit national sovereignty on environmental and labor protections; and the presence of race and gender discrimination in different places Nagar et al. Where and how does market liberalization exacerbate or reduce spatial inequalities? In the future, teams of researchers could use geovisualizations to model uncertainty in inequality patterns that may result from distinct scenarios of globalization. The recent past has also seen rapid economic globalization—characterized by the supranational spatial integration of economies and societies Stiglitz, Often the people who lose jobs as a result of technology are not the ones who get the new ones and the result can be hysteresis in the labour market with deep pockets of long-term unemployment and hit relative poverty. Much depends on whether a government has sufficient resources and political will to implement an active regional and industrial policy to improve employment prospects for those negatively affected by globalisation. FDI creates more formal employment and incomes for people employed in these sectors but perhaps at the expense of similar workers in higher-income countries whose skills are no longer in such demand. Market liberalization has also led to a reworking and intensification of networks of connectivity between many cities; an expanding role for transnational corporations in global production and consumption networks; and the large-scale privatization, and international ownership, of telecommunications, transport systems, and primary resource extraction in low-income countries Dicken, New geographical visualization techniques also offer insights into linkages between inequality and the multiple consequences of globalization. A rise in trade-to-GDP ratios signifies an increase in the volume and value of trade between countries and regions. The latter is a good indicator of the depth of inequality since it tracks incomes flowing to the top ten percent of households and divides by the incomes for the bottom forty percent. Their work begins from the premise that the inequality effects of global processes have distinct spatial and social expressions see also Sachs, ; Kates and Dasgupta,
We see this in regions of the UK for example where de-industrialisation has taken place leading to much higher rates of long-term unemployment and a worsening of economic and social deprivation. Systematic comparisons of subnational inequality and its causes across a range of countries, and in the context of global processes, could move the research agenda forward.
Globalization and inequality of nations
These new datasets can be employed to produce targeted sectoral and regional analyses of understudied economic sectors e. There are also moves to reduce the amount of intra-company loans made by TNCs which can shift profits to countries with lower corporation tax. Researchers and policy makers continue to debate how, and at what scale, inequality trends are changing, but, by any measure, the disparities between rich and poor are striking Firebaugh, ; Milanovic, ; The Economist, ; Held and Kaya, ; Lobao et al. One of the hot political and economic issues of the age has been the ability of businesses operating in more than one country a transitional company to use shadow pricing and other forms of legal tax avoidance to reduce their liability to pay tax and thereby increase the return to those with an equity stake. Real wages come under downward pressure and inequality can increase. Evaluation That said, it could be argued that it is technological progress — which has raised demand for skilled workers relative to unskilled workers — rather than trade and globalisation which has had most impact on these workers. Against this backdrop, the investigation of the following research questions would be particularly productive. FDI creates more formal employment and incomes for people employed in these sectors but perhaps at the expense of similar workers in higher-income countries whose skills are no longer in such demand. The World Development Report adopts this frame of analysis to argue that three geographical dimensions of the global economy must be transformed to reduce inequality. The digital divide in Internet connectivity could influence the ways in which places are understood in the future, as volunteer geographical information becomes increasingly central to the collection of georeferenced data about our world. Their work begins from the premise that the inequality effects of global processes have distinct spatial and social expressions see also Sachs, ; Kates and Dasgupta, We have seen big changes in the workforce and in earnings between different groups but in my view, these are not solely the consequence of globalisation. Point 2 Globalisation might also increase inequality because it usually leads to higher profits for multinational corporations such as Apple, Google and Facebook which feed into generous pay-outs for senior executives and increasing dividends for shareholders.
This can lead to higher rates of structural unemployment and a decline in real living standards. Income and wealth inequality can be measured in various ways including the Gini coefficient and the Palma Ratio. This within-country representation of variables associated with poverty provides a model for the type of comparative spatial analyses that are needed across countries.
Real wages come under downward pressure and inequality can increase.
Because it may seem counterintuitive that subnational inequality would grow in an era of globalization, this finding points to the importance of research on scale differences in inequality patterns, and on the spatial impacts of specific aspects of economic globalization, so that we can better understand how globalizing processes influence inequality—where and for whom Kanbur and Venables, Mykhenko and Swain,who provide a contemporary example of research on the links between territorial inequality, post-socialist transition, and the importation of foreign capital.
The timing of the recent shift in inequality patterns the early s corresponds with the rise of new forms of economic globalization that have transformed spatial relationships around the globe.
We have seen big changes in the workforce and in earnings between different groups but in my view, these are not solely the consequence of globalisation.
based on 33 review