A description of cloning as a sexual reproduction

However, some experts are concerned about the striking similarities between stem cells and cancer cells. Multilineage differentiation from human embryonic stem cell lines.

Why is cloning important

Cool or warm temperatures affect sex determination in species such as crocodiles and turtles. Invertebrates, such as earthworms, slugs, tapeworms and snails, are often hermaphroditic. This procedure starts with the removal of the chromosomes from an egg to create an enucleated egg. The biochemistry involved in reprogramming the differentiated somatic cell nucleus and activating the recipient egg was also far from being well understood. In the USA, President Clinton has instituted a five-year moratorium on research into human cloning in federal-funded programmes and has asked for a similar moratorium on a voluntary basis in non-federal agencies. In birds, Z and W chromosomes determine sex, with females being the heterozygous sex. More generally, cloning may be useful in the generation of transgenic animals. Modern genetic technology can also be used to create clones. Jean Rostand has expressed enthusiasm about his experiments with sea urchins and frogs and since has been predicting "solitary reproduction in man.

However, reproductive human or animal cloning is not defined by the method used to derive the genetically identical embryos suitable for implantation. In the future, some exceptions may be authorized to permit cloning for specifically defined therapeutic purposes pursuant to freely given informed consent by the mother or by the couple which opts for cloning as a method of treating sterility or preventing serious genetic disease while, for example, eliminating the need of an extramarital gamete donor.

who discovered cloning

For example, brain cells modified by the genes responsible for the production of dihydroxyphenylalanine L-Dopa and dopamine could be obtained for transplantation into the brains of Parkinson's patients.

They then transfer the DNA of the donor animal's somatic cell into an egg cell, or oocyte, that has had its own DNA-containing nucleus removed. Depriving humanity of a penetrating knowledge of all potentialities of the living would be counterproductive. Other examples are potato and banana.

Use of cytokines and other specific factors could produce various tissues such as blood vessels.

how is cloning done

As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation.

It would be possible, by using ES cells prepared with nuclear transplantation from patients and healthy people, to compare the development of such cells and to study the fundamental processes that modulate predilections to diseases.

Some people also have expressed interest in having their deceased pets cloned in the hope of getting a similar animal to replace the dead one.

history of cloning

Despite several highly publicized claims, human cloning still appears to be fiction. Ethical Aspects Although their motives are understandable, this is a relatively arbitrary choice; in no sense is it a therapeutic procedure.

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Cloning Fact Sheet